Active and Passive Solar Heat
Utilization of solar energy in architecture can be done in two ways: passive and active. Utilization of passive do when solar power does not need to converted first into electricity. Deep utilization of the passive is also included on space heating (using the greenhouse gases) for the region with temperature of the air low, and water heating. Also, techniques to prevent heating the air in the room on the building in the area, including Tropical into the use of the passive type, where component of sunlight, which consists of: light and heat, only used on components’ light ‘it – the need for natural lighting in buildings.
Passive design strategies will be very different between the buildings that are on climate Tropical and climate Sub Tropical / cold. At the Tropical climate, direct radiation from the sun tend to be avoided by building in order to heat gain in the building to be low, so the increase of air temperature in the building can be prevented. While in Sub-Tropical climate, the design strategy is a passive step of the Tropical climate strategy in the acquisition of heat sun tend to be maximized (except in the summer), solar radiation through that fall directly on the building so that temperature increase occurs in the building, considering the air temperature around is low.
In utilizing the solar actively using the photovoltaic, should also simultaneously architect implement the strategy of passive design. Without the application of passive design strategies, energy use in buildings very likely remain high when visual and thermal comfort must be achieved. In situations such as this, the electric power comes from solar power conversion by solar cells does not become too much meaning. With dimensional solar cell panel which needs large electricity for the achievement of thermal comfort and visual on the building difficult to fulfill. Still electrical energy required for engine cooling air with a large capacity, because the air temperature in a high building, also required electricity for lights in the torch-lighting building a dark room when the strategy passive design that lead to the energy savings are not applied. Role of solar power to replace electricity necessary to achieve the building comfort (thermal and visual) finally failed because the building was not designed in such a form so that comfort achieved without the many electric energy consumption. Electricity generated by the photovoltaic possibility will not be large enough to cool down and illuminate the building. In other words passive design considerations for the use of energy in buildings in this case can not be ignored.
In the passive design, objectives of architecture work that would be achieved – that is comfortable and aesthetic, are generally made integral. Each step in the preparation of the components to form the jacket, simultaneous will result in the achievement of buildings comfort and aesthetic. Be not so with the case where the design of active solar cell panels can be arranged separate components with the preparation of building casing. In other words, the achievement of building aesthetic in active design done in a more flexible and separate with the strategy of comfort achievement, although in fact the architects are required to thought to integrate a comprehensive comfort needs with aesthetics – between needs using a solar cell panel with place them on the integrated shroud of the building so that the panels at once can be a building aesthetic element.
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